EDGE Center hosts ATHENA Teacher Workshop for Washington Health & CTE teachers

What is environmental health? That was the first question for 20 high school health and career and technical education (CTE) teachers from Washington State who attended the EDGE Center Academy for Teaching about Health and Environment Associations (ATHENA) Teacher Workshop on August 2-3, 2016. The teachers came from Selah, Sunnyside, Wenatchee, Moses Lake, Kenniwick, Blaine, Olympia, Puyallup, Gig Harbor, Mukilteo, Edmonds, Shoreline, Tukwila, Bellevue and Seattle

The teachers weren’t all clear in the beginning, but by the end of the workshop everyone knew that environmental health is the effect of anything from outside our bodies on human health - air, water, food, pesticides, UV light, drugs, chemicals, vitamins, stress, and on and on. They also learned that environment + genetics + choices interact to affect our health. 

Dr. Rose James talked to teachers about cancer.
Over two days, the teachers met six University of Washington Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (UW DEOHS) scientists who discussed environmental health topics ranging from nutrition, vitamins, cancer and lung health, to ethics. 

One topic of particular interest was electronic cigarettes, as students are using them but many teachers don't know much about them. There were many questions about the health effects of using electronic cigarettes, or vaping, but we couldn't answer them yet because the FDA has only begun to regulate and study Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS). One teacher wondered, "Which is better, smoking or vaping?" PhD candidate David Scoville hesitated to choose - the best choice, he said, is not to use at all.  

Electronic Cigarettes and E-Juices
The American Lung Association's Beverly Stewart presented about kids and tobacco, describing various tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and hookah, and smokeless tobacco products that include strips, orbs, sticks and chewing tobacco. Beverly discussed tobacco marketing, showing teachers that tobacco products are packaged to look like candy and observing that tobacco products are displayed in convenience stores at a 10-year-old's eye level. Kids don't like to be fooled, she said. Talking with them about tobacco marketing is one strategy to discourage tobacco use: "Look how low that display for electronic cigarettes is. I can hardly read that. Whose attention do you think they're trying to get when they put it down so low?"

Teachers visited the Xu lab
Young researchers explained their work
 The teachers also toured  Libin Xu’s research lab in the UW Department of Medicinal Chemistry and listened to PhD students and post-docs describe their projects studying lipids. 

Teachers worked in small groups
ATHENA-trained teachers Lindzee Alvarez and Tori Marcum from the Bellevue School District introduced ATHENA environmental health classroom lessons about Sugars and Artificial Sweeteners, GMO Salmon, UV Exposure and Sunscreen, Electronic Cigarettes, and Ethics. The teachers were given lesson plans and resources as well as classroom kits for two of the lessons. The ATHENA curriculum is posted on the website and can be downloaded for free.

The teachers appreciated being able to talk with the researchers and also trying out the environmental health lessons alongside practical suggestions for the classroom from experienced teachers Marcum and Alvarez. 

Here are a few comments from the teachers:
Teachers listen to a UW presenter
I feel so fortunate to have been able to attend the workshop. Looking forward to trying the lessons in class this year ... I appreciate your enthusiasm for education. I can't wait to incorporate the lessons that were taught ... I have been telling everyone how much fun the workshop was. Thanks for a lovely, educational time ... ATHENA is a wonderful program that changed the way I teach environmental education. It is now part of our daily class discussion instead of just a few lessons over the semester.                                                                                                                                                    --Marilyn Hair

Costa Lab finds toxic PBDE flame retardant BDE-47 increases glutamate in the brain

Flame retardant chemicals are all around us. They are found in computers, upholstered chairs, and mattresses. They were added with good intentions, for safety in case of fire. But many flame retardants are now thought to be toxic. One class of flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which is now banned, has been found to be toxic to the brain, liver, and other organs. 

Dr. Lucio Costa
A new finding from the lab of CEEH member Dr. Lucio Costa in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (DEOHS), University of Washington School of Public Health, has found how one of these PBDEs, tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), exerts its toxic effects. Researchers from UW and the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Parma, Italy, found that particular types of receptors in the brain are involved in toxicity from BDE-47. 

The results in mouse neurons suggest that BDE-47 increases the amount of the neurotransmitter glutamate. More glutamate in turn activates glutamate receptors and leads to increased calcium levels and oxidative stress. This causes brain cells to become over-activated, culminating in cell death. This sequence of events is especially harmful to the developing brains of infants and toddlers. It can lead to higher impulsivity and diminished attention and motor coordination.

The level of BDE-47 in people in the United States is about ten times higher than in Europe or Japan, because, in trying to prevent deaths from fires, the US required that flame retardants be used in furniture. After realizing their toxicity, manufacture of PBDEs in the US was banned and the levels in people are going down. However, the safety of substitute flame retardants remains an issue for further investigation.

Because of public concern about exposure to flame retardants, and a slow response from the federal government to regulate them, activist groups are focusing on state regulations. California passed a law that took effect January 1, 2016 that stopped the requirement that flame retardants be used in furniture. In April, Washington passed the Toxic-Free Kids and Families Act (ESHB 2545) that prohibits the manufacture, sale, or distribution of children's products or residential upholstered furniture containing any of five flame retardants. The law also mandates the WA Department of Ecology to investigate whether six additional flame retardants meet the criteria of a chemical of high concern for children. Here is a one page summary of the new law.

For more information about flame retardants and regulation, see the presentation slides from The Alaska Community Action on Toxics (ACAT) webinar, Toxic Safety, presented by Dr. Alissa Cordner, Assistant Professor of Sociology at Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington. Dr. Cordner discussed flame retardant chemicals, health effects, federal and state regulation, and current activism. She presented six conceptual risk formulas distilled from stakeholder interviews. 

Dr. Costa’s team's paper can be found here. Other authors include Dr. Pamela Roqué from the University of Washington and Dr. Sara Tagliaferri and Dr. Claudia Pellacani from the University of Parma. Their research was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Grant #ES07033.

Another summary of this research is at AASPH, the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health > Members Research & Reports.
- Marilyn Hair

The Green-Duwamish Watershed Symposium: Hope for a Healthier River

200 people attended the Inaugural 2016 Green-Duwamish Watershed Symposium on February 29, 2016. The event was sold out! Government agencies, non-profit organizations, industry, teachers and students were represented. Twenty speakers arranged in 5 panels spoke about their projects in the watershed. The Symposium was held at the Tukwila Community Center beside the Duwamish River on traditional Duwamish land. Symposium coordinators kept on schedule by blowing an elk bugle call when a speaker's 10-minute presentation time ran out.

The panels covered these topic areas:
  • Sharing Knowledge
  • Building Partnerships
  • Fostering Collaboration
  • Innovating Solutions
  • Connecting for Success
Here's the Symposium schedulePosters and exhibits offered more information.

King County Executive Dow Constantine welcomed the audience, encouraging efforts to come together, build alliances and collaborate to restore our environment. King County is promoting a broad understanding of restoration and preservation through the Green/Duwamish Watershed Strategy. The County Executive emphasized that the Green-Duwamish watershed is an integrated whole and the approach to restoration must be interconnected. One good thing is that all constituents have a shared desire to protect the environment and build a healthy watershed. 

Speaking of the watershed: The Green-Duwamish watershed is a 500 square mile corridor of water, industry, transportation structure, diverse communities and urban centers that stretches for 93 miles from the Cascades to Elliott Bay. Among the wide-ranging issues discussed at the Symposium were salmon, habitat restoration, planting trees, wetlands, water quality, stormwater, source control, remediation, farmland, parks, environmental justice, youth, careers, partnerships and funding.

Climate change was mentioned frequently and is a definite player in Puget Sound. But the Keynote Speaker, Guillaume Mauger, Research Science in the University of Washington Climate Impacts Group, said that climate change doesn't trump the other stressors; it's just a new issue that has to be integrated into all the other factors affecting Puget Sound.

The Duwamish River Cleanup Coalition's (DRCC) Community Outreach Coordinator, Paulina Lopez, and Carmen Martinez, DRCC Youth Program Coordinator, presented about the Duwamish Valley Youth Corps (DVYC). This is a grant-funded program that engages youth from South Park in paid internships to address health disparities and respond to community priorities. There are now 100 DVYC alumni. Youth Corp members learn about and help restore the Duwamish River.

Linn Gould of Just Health Action introduced the social determinants of health and JHA's eight Environmental Justice Lesson Plans which were piloted by the Teen Employment Project and Duwamish Valley Youth Corps.

University of Washington researchers Nancy Rottle and Mason Bowles from the UW Green Futures Lab offered their prototype floating wetlands and proposed trying them on the Duwamish River to improve habitat for juvenile salmon.

The presentations showed progress in restoring habitat for salmon, planting trees and native plants, filtering toxins through rain gardens and soil, improving parks, salmon recovery, and cleaning up legacy pollution. The tone of the day was hopeful and collaborative with lots of community involvement. It demonstrated the progress that's happening and was a welcome contrast to the contentious meetings about contaminants and cleanup a few years ago when the EPA cleanup plan was being negotiated.

At the end of a fast-moving day, James Rasmussen offered "The Long View". Rasmussen is Coordinator of the Duwamish River Cleanup Coalition and a member of the Duwamish Tribe. James reminded us that it's spring, a time of renewal and change. He talked about changes on the Duwamish, from the ice age, to salmon runs that lasted year-round, to the opening of the Ballard Locks that dropped the water level in Lake Washington and dried up the Black River. Yet, amazingly, there is still a run of wild salmon on the Duwamish. Because of the cleanup, eagles, otters, heron, and egrets are returning to the watershed. Today there is more wildlife on the Duwamish than in any other part of Seattle.

Everybody wants the best, he said. We may sometimes find ourselves on different sides, but we must remember the goal and work together, staying open to new ideas. Do we still have time to save the salmon? Let's hope so. From the Native perspective, the Duwamish watershed is a living, breathing thing. It's important for us all that it survives.

More resources:
-- Marilyn Hair

UW scientists find increased risk of breast cancer from exposure to a component of diesel exhaust

Center for Ecogenetics & Environmental Health (CEEH) researchers Joel Kaufman and Kerryn Reding are interested in understanding the effects of exposure to air pollution from diesel exhaust on human health. 

Dr. Kaufman, who is also Director of the UW DISCOVER Center: Cardiovascular Disease and Traffic-Related Air Pollution, researches the effects of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a component of diesel exhaust, on the cardiovascular system. Recently, Joel discussed his team's work in a podcast for the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Partnerships for Environmental Public Health (NIEHS PEPH).

Now, a study by Dr. Kerryn Reding from the UW School of Nursing and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center shows that women exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have an increased risk of developing the most common form of breast cancer, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. NO2 is another a component of diesel exhaust.

Some past studies looking for possible connections between breast cancer and air pollution have reported associations with both PM2.5 and NO2. To get a clearer picture, Dr. Reding and her group, who represent the UW Schools of Nursing and Public Health, the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Bergen, Norway, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), undertook a large-scale study that spanned 4.5 years. They analyzed data from 47,591 women in the Sister Study, a National Institutes of Health Study of the Environmental and Genetic Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. The researchers adjusted for demographics (age, income, education) and health behaviors (body mass index, smoking) to estimate the risk of developing breast cancer after exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 from air pollution.

The study found no increased risk of breast cancer from PM2.5 or PM10. In the women who had higher than average exposures to NO2, it found a 10% increased risk of hormone receptor-positive (ER+/PR+) breast cancer. 

People who live or work near major roadways have a higher than average exposures to diesel exhaust and NO2. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)48 million people in the United States live within 300 feet of a major highway, railroad or airport. Living near a major roadway confers a higher risk of asthma, cardiovascular disease, impaired lung development and childhood leukemia, low-birthweight babies, and premature death. 

Dr. Reding's research was published in the December 2015 issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. Another summary of Dr. Reding’s study was published in UW Health Sciences NewsBeat.

-- Marilyn Hair

Cadmium exposure affects Coho salmon ability to smell ... and why it matters

Chase Williams, PhD candidate in the UW School of Public Health Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (DEOHS) has defended his dissertation. The title is: Mechanisms and Biomarkers of Cadmium Induced Neurobehavioral Impairment in the Olfactory System of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).  Dr. Evan Gallagher, Director of the University of Washington Superfund Research Program (UW-SRP) and a member of the Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, was his Supervisory Committee Chair.

Chase Williams
Chase Williams
First, I can't resist observing that the defense was held in Roosevelt 2228, a conference room with glass doors commonly called the Fishbowl.

Pacific salmon populations are threatened by many factors, and one contributing factor is thought to be disruption of the olfactory system, the sense of smell, by waterborne pollutants. The salmon olfactory system is in direct contact with the water column making it a sensitive target for chemical disruption by waterborne pollutants. This is important as salmon rely on their sense of smell for many critical functions, such as navigation, finding food and avoiding predators.

The metal cadmium (Cd) is a common pollutant in industrialized and agricultural waterways. Sources of Cd include discharge from industrial operations and fertilizers used in agricultural areas. Research has shown that Cd can impair the function of the olfactory system in zebrafish and trout. It is also known that wild juvenile salmon migrate through pollutant impacted waterways, many of which can contain Cd. 

Chase investigated three questions: (1) Do acute Cd exposures change salmon behaviors that depend on the sense of smell? (2) Does the olfactory system recover after being exposed to Cd? (3) Can we develop a set of molecular biomarkers that reflect Cd induced olfactory dysfunction and injury?

First, juvenile Coho were exposed to two concentrations of Cd for between 8 and 48 hours, followed by a 16-day recovery period. Chase observed the Cohos’ behavioral responses to an alarm odorant in a two-choice maze, after which he examined their olfactory rosettes for changes in histology (tissue anatomy) and gene expression. 

Here is what he found: Exposure to a low-level (3.7 parts per billion or ppb) and a high-level (347 ppb) of Cd disrupted the Cohos’ "olfactory driven alarm behavior". In addition, the 347 ppb exposure level completely blocked their sense of smell within 48hrs. After the 16-day recovery, the fish exposed to both levels of Cd showed only partial recovery of olfactory function. Tissue analysis of the olfactory sensory epithelium (thin tissue lining of hollow structures) showed that the high-level Cd exposure killed many olfactory sensory and non-sensory epithelial cells, explaining the loss of smell. Gene expression of cellular stress/injury biomarkers that were measured in the olfactory rosettes (hmox1, mt1a, nrn1) hinted at the mechanisms.

Based on those findings, Chase then investigated how exposure to Cd impacted Coho salmon behavioral responses to multiple types of odorants, and the effect of Cd on different types of olfactory sensory neurons. Two experiments were done: (1) Juvenile Coho salmon were exposed to one of two concentrations of Cd (2 and 30 ppb) for 48hrs, followed by 16 days of recovery; (2) Another group of juvenile Coho salmon were exposed to lower-levels of Cd (0.3 and 2 ppb) for 16 days, followed by 16 days of recovery. Chase analyzed olfactory driven behaviors in a two-choice maze, using odorants that elicited 3 possible responses: an attraction, an avoidance, or an alarm response. Following the behavioral trials, he again analyzed changes in histology and gene expression within the olfactory rosettes.

What he found was that exposure to Cd altered the Cohos' behavioral responses to the different scents, and in some cases completely reversed their responses, even at the very-low 0.3 ppb Cd exposure level. Surprisingly, these behavioral alterations persisted even after the 16-day recovery period. He found that the low-level Cd exposures did not induce observable injuries in the olfactory sensory epithelial tissue. He also found that Cd builds up quickly and persists in the olfactory sensory epithelium. The accumulation and persistence of Cd in the olfactory system closely mirrored the observed behavioral changes. Analyzing the expression levels of protein and gene markers of the two main types of olfactory sensory neurons, ciliated and microvillar, he found that exposure to the 30 ppb level of Cd predominantly impacted the ciliated olfactory sensory neurons compared to the microvillar olfactory sensory neurons.

A young Coho salmon (photo credit: kellymrk 


• Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd can disrupt salmon olfactory function. There is a partial, but incomplete, recovery of the ability to smell when the exposure ends.

• When the Coho sense of smell is impaired, Coho response to typical odorants changes. Different olfactory neuronal cell types do not all respond the same way to Cd exposures. 

• This data suggest that the mechanisms underlying the behavioral alterations vary depending on the level of Cd exposure. The observed behavioral dysfunction following high-level Cd exposures are likely driven by significant injury to the olfactory epithelium. However, the lack of observable injury to the olfactory epithelium following the low-level Cd exposures suggests that the observed behavioral dysfunction following low-level Cd exposures are most likely driven by disruption of olfactory neuronal signaling.

• The results of this study indicate that juvenile salmon migrating through waterways that contain Cd (and potentially other metals) may have rapid and persistent loss of the ability to smell. An impaired ability for fish to smell has been linked to loss of fitness and increased mortality.

The Superfund Research Program helped to finance this research. Chase was a Student Poster Winner at the 2012 SRP Annual meeting. In 2013 he made a presentation to the SRP Trainee Webinar Series titled: Effects of Cadmium on Olfactory Mediated Behaviors and Molecular Biomarkers in Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Chase also presented a poster at the 2015 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) 35th annual meetingDeveloping sensitive markets of cadmium-inhibition of odorant perception in Coho salmon

His work builds on Evan's Gallagher's research on Biochemical Mechanisms of Olfactory Injury in Salmon that can affect salmon survival behaviors such as homing, feeding, and predatory-prey avoidance.   

--Marilyn Hair and Chase Williams